The Effects of Virtual Reality Simulation Use on Nursing Students during COVID-19: A Systematic Review

Abstract views: 54 / PDF downloads: 19


  • Yesim ISLER ISILDAK ilk üyelik
  • Fatma ETI ASLAN



Virtual reality, Simulation, Nursing education, COVID-19


Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the use of virtual reality simulation on the education of nursing students during the Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Methods: This systematic review scanned studies published in Pubmed, Cochrane and Ovid databases between November 2019 and September 2022 (last search date 16 September 2022) using the keywords “virtual reality” and “nursing education” or “nurse and education” and “COVID-19” and their combinations. The content of Medical subject headings (MeSH) was used to create keywords.  Critical Appraisal Tools recommended by the Joanna Briggs Institute were used to assess the quality of the studies.  Five studies out of 1648 studies scanned were included in this study.

Results: The sample in these studies, all conducted in a quasi-experimental design, ranged from 50 to 192. In the studies reviewed, the groups using virtual reality simulation had higher self-efficacy, perception, knowledge, learning motivation, problem-solving skills, self-confidence, learning satisfaction and practical performance than other groups.

Conclusion: The results indicated that virtual reality simulation could be used effectively in student nurse education during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Author Biographies

Yesim ISLER ISILDAK , ilk üyelik










Ahn, M.K., Lee, C. M.(2021). Development andeffects of head-mounteddisplay-basedhome-visitsvirtualrealitysimulation program fornursingstudents [Article in Korean]. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 51(4), 465-477. 10.4040/jkan.21051

Arrogante, O.,López-Torre, E.M., Carrión-García, L., Polo, A., Jiménez-Rodríguez, D. (2021). High-fidelityvirtualobjectivestructuredclinicalexaminationswithstandardizedpatients in nursingstudents: an innovativeproposalduringthe COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare (Basel), 9(3), 355.

Choi, J., Thompson, C.E., Choi, J., Waddill, C.B., Choi, S. (2022). Effectiveness of immersive virtual reality in nursing education: systematic review. Nurse Educator, 47(3), E57-E61.

Cook, T.C.,Camp-Spivey, L. J.(2022). Innovativeteachingstrategiesusingsimulationforpediatricnursingclinicaleducationduringthepandemic: a casestudy. AcademicMedicine, 97(3S), S23-S27.

Critical Appraisal Tools.(2022). (accessed 02.10.22).

Dante, A.,Bruni, E., La Cerra, C., Caponnetto, V., Masotta, V., Petrucci, C., .... Lancia, L. (2021). Graduatestudentoutcomesfollowingcriticalcaresimulation: An Italian pilot study. NursingEducationPerspectives, 42(6), E40-E42.

Dean, S.,Halpern, J., McAllister, M., Lazenby, M. (2020). Nursingeducation, virtualrealityandempathy? Nursing Open, 7(6), 2056-2059.

Farra, S.L., Smith, S.J., Ulrich, D.L., 2018. Thestudentexperiencewithvaryingimmersionlevels of virtualrealitysimulation. NursingEducationPerspectives, 39(2), 99-101.

Fealy, S.,Jones, D., Hutton, A., Graham, K., McNeill, L., Sweet, L., Hazelton, M. (2019). Theintegration of immersivevirtualreality in tertiarynursingandmidwiferyeducation: A scopingreview. NurseEducationToday, 79, 14-19.

Huynh, N. (2021). Exploringtheuse of simulationtodevelopleadershipskills in undergraduatenursingstudents: a scopingreviewprotocol. JBI EvidenceSynthesis, 19(11), 3080-3087.

Hwang, W.J., Lee, J. (2021). Effectiveness of theinfectiousdisease (COVID-19) simulationmodule program on nursingstudents: Disasternursingscenarios. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 51(6), 648-660.

Jadmiko, A.W.,Kristina, T.N., Sujianto, U., Prajoko, Y.W., Dwiantoro, L., Widodo, A.P. (2022). A quasi-experimental of a virtualrealitycontentinterventionforlevel of comfort of Indonesiancancerpatients. ComputersInformaticsNursing, 40(12), 841-847.

Jallad, S.T., Işık, B. (2022). Theeffectiveness of virtualrealitysimulation as learningstrategy in theacquisition of medicalskills in nursingeducation: a systematicreview. IrishJournal of MedicalScience, 191(3), 1407-1426.

Jeong, Y., Lee, H., Han, J.W. (2022). Development andevaluation of virtualrealitysimulationeducationbased on coronavirusdisease 2019 scenariofornursingstudents: A pilot study.NursingOpen, 9(2), 1066-1076.

Kang, K.A., Kim, S.J., Lee, M.N., Kim, M., Kim, S. (2020). Comparison of learningeffects of virtualrealitysimulation on nursingstudentscaringforchildrenwithasthma. International Journal of EnvironmentalResearchandPublicHealth, 17(22), 8417.

Karabacak, Ü., Uğur, E. (2019). Sağlık bilimlerinde simülasyon kavramdan uygulamaya. In Karabacak, Ü., Uğur, E. (Eds), Simülasyon Sözlüğü. (pp. 27-34). Istanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitapevi.

Kim, H.Y.,Chun, J. (2022). Effects of a patientexperience-basedvirtualrealityblendedlearning program on nursingstudents. ComputersInformaticsNursing, 40(7), 438446.

Leaver, C.A.,Stanley, J.M., GoodwinVeenema, T. (2022). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on thefuture of nursingeducation. AcademicMedicine, 97(3S), S82-S89.

Lee, H., Han, J.W. (2022). Development andevaluation of a virtualrealitymechanicalventilationeducation program fornursingstudents.BMC MedicalEducation, 22(1), 775.

Liu, Y.,Butzlaff, A. (2021). Where'sthegerms? Theeffects of usingvirtualreality on nursingstudents' hospitalinfectionpreventionduringthe COVID-19 pandemic.Journal of ComputerAssisted Learning, 37(6), 1622-1628.

Mendez, K.J.W.,Piasecki, R.J., Hudson, K., Renda, S., Mollenkopf, N., Nettles, B.S., Han, H.R. (2020). Virtual andaugmentedreality: Implicationsforthefuture of nursingeducation. NurseEducationToday, 93, 104531.

Page, M.J.,McKenzie, J.E., Bossuyt, P.M., Boutron, I., Hoffman, T.C., Mulrow, C.D., ... Moher, D.(2021). The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updatedguidelineforreportingsystematicreviews. BMJ, 372, n71.

Plotzky, C.,Lindwedel, U., Sorber, M., Loessl, B., König, P., Kunze, C., ... Meng, M. (2021). Virtual realitysimulations in nurseeducation: A systematicmappingreview. NurseEducationToday, 101, 104868.

Schuelke, S.,Aurit, S., Connot, N., Denney, S. (2019). Virtual nursing: Thenewreality in qualitycare. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 43(4), 322-328.

Smith, S.J.,Farra, S.L., Ulrich, D.L., Hodgson, E., Nicely, S., Mickle, A. (2018). Effectiveness of twovaryinglevels of virtualrealitysimulation. NursingEducationPerspectives, 39(6), E10-E15.

Stephen, T.,King, K., Taylor, M., Jackson, M. Hilario, C. (2022). A virtual, simulatedcodewhiteforundergraduatenursingstudents.CanadianJournal of NursingResearch, 54(3), 320-330.

Stuart, J.,Aul, K., Bumbach, M.D., Stephen, A. Lok, B. (2021). Building a handoffcommunicationvirtualexperiencefornursingstudentsusingvirtualhumans. ComputersInformaticsNursing, 39(12), 1017-1026.

Tabatabai, S. (2020). Simulationsandvirtuallearningsupportingclinicaleducationduringthe COVID 19 pandemic. Advances in MedicalEducationandPractice, 11, 513-516.

Tawalbeh, L.I. (2020). Effect of simulationmodules on Jordaniannursingstudentknowledgeandconfidence in performingcriticalcareskills: A randomizedcontrolledtrial. International Journal of AfricaNursingSciences, 13, 100242.

Woods, A.,Mumbower, R., Mumba, M.N. (2021). Using simulationtopreparestudentsformedicalmissiontrips. Journal of ChristianNursing, 38(2), E15-E22.

Wu, M.L.,Chao, L.F., Xiao, X. (2022). A pediatricseizuremanagementvirtualrealitysimulatorfornursingstudents: A quasi-experimentaldesign. NurseEducationToday, 119, 105550. https://doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2022.105550

Yang, S.Y., Oh, Y.H. (2022). Theeffects of neonatalresuscitationgamification program usingimmersivevirtualreality: A quasi-experimentalstudy. NurseEducationToday, 117, 105464.

Yu, M.,Yang, M., Ku, B., Mann, J. S. (2021). Effects of virtualrealitysimulation program regardinghigh-risk neonatalinfectioncontrol on nursingstudents. AsianNursingResearch, 15(3), 189-196.

Yu, M.,Yang, M.R. (2022). Effectivenessandutility of virtualrealityınfectioncontrolsimulationforchildrenwith COVID-19: Quasi-experimentalstudy. JMIR Serious Games, 10(2), e36707.

Zackoff, M.W., Lin, L., Israel, K., Ely, K., Raab, D., Saupe, J., ...Sitterding, M. (2020). Thefuture of onboarding: implementation of immersivevirtualrealityfornursingclinicalassessmenttraining. JournalforNurses in Professional Development, 36(4), 235-240.

Zhang, W.,Luo, M., Liu, Y., Cai, S., Yang, Q., Huang, Y., Yu, X. (2022). A pilot studytoinvestigatethe role of virtualreality in thepreservicetraining of nursingstaff in isolationwards. ComputersInformaticsNursing, 40(5), 307-316.




How to Cite

ISLER ISILDAK , Y., HACIDURSUNOGLU ERBAS, D., & ETI ASLAN, F. (2024). The Effects of Virtual Reality Simulation Use on Nursing Students during COVID-19: A Systematic Review. GEVHER NESIBE JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES, 9(2), 302–311.




Most read articles by the same author(s)