Experiences of Nurses Caring for Patients Diagnosed with Covid-19: A Qualitative Study

Abstract views: 41 / PDF downloads: 32





Covid-19, Nurse, Pandemic, Qualitative Research, Experience


Objectives: This study was conducted in order to study in depth the experiences of nurses who care for patients diagnosed with Covid-19.

Materials and Methods: In the study, a phenomenological pattern from qualitative research methods was used. The study group of the research included 35 nurses working in the units of a state hospital that care for patients diagnosed with Covid-19 between May 2022 and July. Intense sampling technique, which is a purposive sampling method, was used in the selection of the sample and the sample size was formed by 7 nurses. A semi-structured interview form was used to collect the data. In the evaluation of the findings obtained from the interviews, inductive content analysis method was used. The data were analyzed using the MAXQDA 2020 program.

Results: In line with the research findings, themes and sub-themes were determined from the expressions of the nurses. According to this; 4 themes were determined as "difficulties they experienced", "effects on their lives", "emotions they feel" and "coping methods" of nurses who care for patients with a diagnosis of Covid-19. In the context of the theme of the effects on nurses' lives who work during the Covid-19 pandemic, sub-themes emerged as ‘effects on their perspectives on life’, ‘effects on their professional lives’, and ‘effects on their family and social lives’.

Conclusion: The results obtained from this study showed that nurses who care for patients with a diagnosis of Covid-19 experience difficulties due to stigmatize and their superiors' management of the process. The causes of this process includes working in difficult conditions such as the intensity of the number of patients, insufficient number of nurses, inability to reach treatment and care, and frequently encountering death cases; professional problems such as not being appreciated, loneliness and burnout; family and social life problems such as fear of losing loved ones, being asocial, fear of contagion, and disruption of family interactions. It has been revealed that nurses use sports, crying and medical treatment methods to cope with these negativities. Despite all the negativities, it has been observed that this process also provide positive awareness in nurses’ outlook on life. According to the results obtained from the research, it was suggested that awareness-based approaches should be applied, and financial and psychological support interventions should be offered in order to increase nurses' well-being, to become aware of the emotions they feel, to change their perspectives, to cope effectively and to develop their problem solving skills.


Akkuş, Y., Karacan, Y., Güney, R., & Kurt, B. (2022). Experiences of nurses working with Covid-19 patients: A qualitative study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 31, 1243-1257. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15979

Aksoy, Y.E., & Koçak, V. (2020). Psychological effects of nurses and midwives due to Covid-19 outbreak: The case of Turkey. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 34(June), 427-433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2020.07.011

Atay, S., & Cura SU (2020). Problems encountered by nurses due to the use of personal protective equipment during the coronavirus pandemic: Results of a survey. Wound Management & Prevention, 66(10), 12-16. https://doi.org/10.25270/ wmp.2020.10.1216

Buheji, M., & Buhaid, N. (2020). Nursing human factor during Covid-19 pandemic. International Journal of Nursing Science, 10(1), 12-24. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.nursing.20201 001.02

Cengiz, Z., Işık, K., Gurdap, Z., & Yayan, E.H. (2021). Behaviours and experiences of nurses during the Covid-19 pandemic in Turkey: A mixed methods study. Journal of Nursing Management, 29(7), 2002-2013. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13449

Chen, Q., Liang, M., Yamin, L., Jincai, G., Dongxue, F., Ling, W., & Zhang, Z. (2020). Correspondence mental health care for medical staff in China during the Covid-19. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(4), 19–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30078 -X

Choi, K.R., & Jeffers, K.S. (2020). Nursing and the novel coronavirus: Risks and Responsibilities in a Global Outbreak. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 76(7), 1486-1487. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14369. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Creswell, J.W. (2016). Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri Beş Yaklaşıma Göre Nitel Araştırma ve Araştırma Deseni. (M. Bütün, SB Demir, edt). Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi.

Crowe, S., Howard, A.F., Vanderspank-Wright, B., Gillis, P., McLeod, F., Penner, C., & Haljan, G. (2021). The effect of Covid-19 pandemic on the mental health of Canadian critical care nurses providing patient care during the early phase pandemic: A mixed method study. Intensive Critical Care Nursing, 63, 102999. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iccn.2020.102999

Galehdar, N., Kamran, A., Toulabi, T., & Heydari, H. (2020). Exploring nurses' experiences of psychological distress during care of patients with Covid-19: A qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1), 489. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02898-1

García-Martín, M., Roman, P., Rodriguez-Arrastia, M., Diaz-Cortes, M.D.M., Soriano-Martin, P.J., & Ropero-Padilla, C. (2020). Novice nurse’s transitioning to emergency nurse during Covid-19 pandemic: A qualitative study. Journal of Nursing Management, 29(2), 258-267. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13148

Gılroy, R. (2020). Nurses on coronavirus frontline facing ‘abhorrent’abuse from public. Accessed May 7, 2022, from https://www.nursingtimes.net/news/coronavirus/nurses-fighting-coronavirus-facing-abhorrent-abuse-from-public-20-03-2020

Hatch. J.A. (2002). Doing Qualitative Research in Education Settings. America: State university of New York Press.

Hicdurmaz, D., & Uzar, Y. (2020). Protection of Covid-19 frontline nurses’ mental health and prevention of psychological trauma. Journal of Hacettepe University Faculty of Nursing, 7, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.31125/ hunhe msire.775531

Hu, D., Kong, Y., Li, W., Han, Q., Zhang, X., Zhu, L.X., Wan, S.W., Liu, Z., Shen, Q.U., Yang, J., He, H.G., & Zhu, J. (2020). Frontline nurses’ burnout, anxiety, depression, and fear statuses and their associated factors during the Covid-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China: A large-scale cross-sectional study. EClinicalMedicine, 27, 24, 100424. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100424

Huang, L., Xu, F., & Liu, H. (2020). Emotional responses and coping strategies of nurses and nursing college students during Covid-19 outbreak. MedRxiv Preprint, 15(8), e0237303. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.05.20031898

International Council of Nurses (ICN) (2020). Press information. Press Information . Accessed https://www.icn.ch/news/icn-confirms-1500-nurses-have-died-covid-19-44-countries-and-estimates-healthcare-worker-covid

Jackson, D., Bradbury-Jones, C., Baptiste, D., Gelling, L., Morin, K., Neville, S., & Smith, G.D. (2020). Life in the pandemic: some reflections on nursing in the context of Covid-19. Journal of Clinical Nursing, Ahead of print, 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15257

Kackin, O., Ciydem, E., Aci, O.S., & Kutlu, F.Y. (2020). Experiences and psychosocial problems of nurses caring for patients diagnosed with Covid-19 in Turkey: A qualitative study. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 67(2), 158-167. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020 942788

Kim, Y., Seo, E., Seo, Y., Dee, V., & Hong, E. (2018). Effects of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus on post-traumatic stress disorder and burnout among registered nurses in South Korea. International Journal of Healthcare, 4(2), 27-33. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijh.v4n2p27

Lai, J., Ma, S., Wang, Y., & et al. (2020). Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to Coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open, 3(3), e203976. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

Lee, S.M., Kang, W.S., Cho, A.R., Kim, T., & Park, J.K. (2018). Psychological impact of the 2015 MERS outbreak on hospital workers and quarantined hemodialysis patients. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 87, 123-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2018.10.003.

Liu, Q., Luo, D., Haase, J.E., Guo, Q., Wang, X.Q., Liu, S., & Yang, B.X. (2020). Articles The experiences of health-care providers during the Covid-19 crisis in China: A qualitative study. The Lancet Global Health, 8(6), e790-e798. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30204 -7

Maben, J., & Bridges, J. (2020). Covid-19: Supporting nurses ' psychological and mental health. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(15–16), 2742-2750. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15307

Maunder, R.G., Lancee, W.J., Balderson, K.E., & et al. (2006). Long-term psychological and occupational effects of providing hospital healthcare during SARS outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(12), 1924-1932. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1212.060584.

Miles, M.B., & Huberman, A.M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. California: Sage Publications.

Pappa, S., Ntella, V., Giannakas, T., & et al. (2020) Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among healthcare workers during the Covid-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 88, 901-907. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.026.

Purabdollah, M., & Ghasempour, M. (2020). Necessity of attention to mental health of the front line nurses against Covid-19: A Forgotten requirement. IJCBNM, 8(3), 280-281. https://doi.org/10.30476/IJCBNM.2020.85889.1301.

Ramaci, T., Barattucci, M., Ledda, C., & Rapisarda, V. (2020). Social stigma during Covid-19 and its impact on HCWs outcomes. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12(9), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.3390/su120 93834

Shanafelt, T., Ripp, J., & Trockel, M. (2020). Understanding and addressing sources of anxiety among health care professionals during the Covid-19 pandemic. JAMA, 323(21), 2133-2134. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.5893

Shen, X., Zou, X., Zhong, X., Yan, J., & Li, L. (2020). Psychological stress of ICU nurses in the time of Covid-19. Critical Care, 24(1), 2–4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s1305 4-020-02926-2

Streubert, H.J., & Carpenter, D.R. (2011). Qualitative research in nursing. (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams ve Wilkins.

Sun, N., Wei, L., Shi, S., Jiao, D., Song, R., Ma, L., Wang, H., Wang, C., Wang, Z., You, Y., Liu, S., & Wang, H. (2020). A qualitative study on the psychological experience of caregivers of Covid-19 patients. American Journal of Infection, 48, 592-598. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2020.03.018

VERBI Software. MAXQDA (2020). MAXQDA 2020 Analytics Pro [computer software]. Berlin, Germany: VERBI Software.

World Health Organization, 2020. State of the World’s Nursing 2020: Investing in education, jobs and leadership Accessed May 16, 2022 https://www.who.int/ publications- detail/nursing- report- 2020

Xiang, Y.T., Yang, Y., & Li, W. (2020). Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. Lancet Psychiatry, 7(3), 228-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30046-8.

Yakıt, E., & Uyurdağ, N. (2017). Nurses’ occupational satisfaction; example of Diyarbakır City’s. Sağlık ve Toplum, 27(3), 48-55.

Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2008). Sosyal Bilimlerde Nitel Araştırma Yöntemleri. Seçkin Yayınevi.

Yıldırım, N., Aydoğan, A., & Bulut, M. (2021). A qualitative study on the experiences of the first nurses assigned to Covid-19 units in Turkey. Journal of Nursing Management, 29, 1366-1374. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13291

Zhang, Y., Wei, L., Li, H., Pan, Y., Wang, J., Li, Q., Wu, Q., & Wei, H. (2020). The psychological change process of frontline nurses caring for patients with Covid-19 during its outbreak. Mental Health Nursing, 41(6), 525-530. https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2020.1752865.




How to Cite

ŞAHİN , M., DEMİRKIRAN , F., & SALIK , H. (2023). Experiences of Nurses Caring for Patients Diagnosed with Covid-19: A Qualitative Study. GEVHER NESIBE JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES, 8(4), 946–956. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10045707