Assessment of the Correlation between Spiritual Well-Being and Hope Levels of Society during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Abstract views: 46 / PDF downloads: 15


  • Gülcan BAHÇECİOĞLU TURAN Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fırat University
  • Safiye YANMIŞ Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Erzican Binali Yıldırım University
  • Zülfünaz ÖZER



COVID 19, Hopelessness, Hope, Society, Spiritual well-being.


Objective: In this research, the relationship between society’s spiritual well-being and hope levels of the COVID-19 pandemic process was evaluated.

Methods: The type of research is descriptive and correlational. The research was carried out between 4-17 May 2020. The forms were delivered to individuals online. 722 participants who answered the questions on the form completely were thrown into the research.

Results: The average age of the participants was 27.50±8.31, 77.7% were female and 47% were students. It was found that 82.4% of the participants had sufficient information about COVID-19, 67.7% had taken sufficient personal measures for COVID-19, 90.2% did not have any COVID-19-diagnosed patients in their environment, and 2.5% had friends infected with COVID-19, 26% experienced a sense of fear about COVID-19. Score average of BHS total and sub-dimension was found respectively as; BHS total (5.40±4.48), loss of motivation (2.28±1.71), feelings and expectations about the future (1.10±1.42), and hope (1.76±1.76). SWBS total score average was found as 110.96±17.63. A negative and statistically significant association was found between SWBS with loss of motivation, negative feelings and expectations about the future sub-dimension, and BHS total score averages (p<0.05).

Conclusion:  It was found that the hopelessness levels of the society were low and their spiritual well-being levels were good. In addition, it was found that as the spiritual well-being levels of society increased the hope, motivation positive feelings, and expectations about the future levels increased.


Adana, F. (2006). Spiritual Dimension of Surgical Nursing Care. Nursing Forum, 1–4.

Arslantas, H., Adana, F., Kaya, F. & Turan, D. (2010). Hopelessness and Social Support Level in The Inpatients and Factors Affecting Them. Florence Nightingale Journal of Nursing, 18(2), 87–97.

Aslan, R. (2020). Endemic Diseases in History and COVID-19. Journal of Detail, 8(851), 35–41.

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A. & Carbin, M. G. (1988). Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory: Twenty-five years of evaluation. Clinical Psychology Review, 8(1), 77–100. doi:10.1016/0272-7358(88)90050-5

Beck, A. T., Weissman, A., Lester, D. & Trexler, L. (1974). The measurement of pessimism: the hopelessness scale. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 42(6), 861–865. doi:10.1037/h0037562

Caldeira, S., Timmins, F., de Carvalho, E. C. & Vieira, M. (2017). Spiritual Well-Being and Spiritual Distress in Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy: Utilizing the SWBQ as Component of Holistic Nursing Diagnosis. Journal of religion and health, 56(4), 1489–1502. doi:10.1007/s10943-017-0390-4

Cinar, F. & Eti Aslan, F. (2017). Spiritualism and Nursing: The Importance of Spiritual Care in Intensive Care Patients. Journal of Academic Research in Nursing, 3(1), 37–42.

Dehbashi, F., Sabzevari, S. & Tirgari, B. (2015). The Relationship Between Spiritual Well-Being And Hope in Hemodialysis Patients Referring to The Khatam Anbiya Hospital in Zahedan 2013-2014. Medical Ethics, 8(30), 77–96.

Dilbaz, N. & Seber, G. (1993). The Concept of Hopelessness: Its Iimportance in Depression and Suicide. Crisis Journal, 1(3), 134–138.

Dogulu, C. & Sakallı, N. (2015). A Review on Terror Management Theory. Turkish Psychology Articles, 18(35), 33–47.

Durak, A. & Palabiyikoglu, R. (1994). Beck Hopelessness Scale Validity Study. Crisis Journal, 2(2), 311–319. doi:10.1501/0000831

Eksi, H. & Kardas, S. (2017). Spiritual Well-Being: Scale Development and Validation. Spiritual Psychology and Counseling, 2(1), 73–88. doi:10.12738/spc.2017.1.0022

Gheihman, G., Zimmermann, C., Deckert, A., Fitzgerald, P., Mischitelle, A., Rydall, A., … & Rodin, G. (2016). Depression and hopelessness in patients with acute leukemia: the psychological impact of an acute and life-threatening disorder. Psycho-oncology, 25(8), 979–989. doi:10.1002/pon.3940

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., … & Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497–506. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5

İstek, E. (2017). Great Plague in Europa And Religious Factor in Plague (The Sample Of Vienna). Journal of History Research, 36(62), 173–204.

Karagul, A. (2012). Spiritual Care: It’ s Meaning Significance, Method and Training (The Netherland Case). The Journal of Religious Studies, 15(40), 5–27.

Kavradim, S. & Ozer, Z. (2014). Hope in People with Cancer. Current Approaches in Psychiatry, 6(3), 154–164. doi:10.5455/cap.20130901084242

Kaya, B. (2020). Effects of pandemic on mental health. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 23(2), 123–124. doi:10.5505/kpd.2020.64325

Kelleci, M. (2005). Nursing intervention to increase hope in cancer patients. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 6(1), 41–47.

Kesgin, C. & Topuzoglu, A. (2006). Definition of health; Handle. Journal of İstanbul Kultur University, 6, 47–49.

Kizilirmak, O. (2015). The investigation of meaning in life of the young adults according to spirituality and personality traits. Gazi University.

McEwen, M. (2005). Spiritual Nursing Care: State of the Art. Holistic Nursing Practice, 19(4), 161–168.

MediaCat. (2020). Universal McCann’ s Turkey’ s Corona Days research. 16 April 2020 tarihinde from retrieved.

Ministry of Health. (2020). The Current Situation in Turkey. 22 April 2020 tarihinde from retrieved.

Oz, F. (2004). Human, Spiritual Requirements and Nursing. MN Klinik Bilimler& Doktor, 10, 266–273.

Psychiatric Association of Turkey. (2020). COVID-19 and Mental Health. 1 June 2020 tarihindeıd-19-ve-ruh-sagligi from retrieved.

Sulu Ugurlu, E. & Basbakkal, Z. (2013). Spiritual Care Requirements of the Mothers of the Hospitalized Children in Intensive Care Units. Journal of Turkish Intensive Care Association, 11(1), 17–24. doi:10.4274/Tybdd.43531

Taheri-Kharameh, Z. (2016). The relationship between spiritual well-being and stress coping strategies in hemodialysis patients. Health, Spirituality and Medical Ethics, 3(4), 24–28. from retrieved.

Tan, H., Wutthilert, C. & O’Connor, M. (2011). Spirituality and quality of life in older people with chronic illness in Thailand. Progress in Palliative Care, 19(4), 177–184. doi:10.1179/1743291X11Y.0000000013

World Health Organization. (2020). Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Outbreak. 20 April 2020 tarihinde from retrieved.

Yaghoobzadeh, A., Soleimani, M. A., Allen, K. A., Chan, Y. H. & Herth, K. A. (2018). Relationship Between Spiritual Well-Being and Hope in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of Religion and Health, 57(3), 938–950. doi:10.1007/s10943-017-0467-0

Yilmaz, M. (2011). A Dimension of Holistic Care: Spirituality, Nature and Relationship with Nursing. Journal of Anatolia Nursing and Health Sciences, 14(2), 61–70.

Yilmaz, M. & Okyay, N. (2009). Views Related to Spiritual Care and Spirituality of Nurses. Journal of Research and Development in Nursing, 11(3), 41–52.




How to Cite

BAHÇECİOĞLU TURAN , G., YANMIŞ , S., & ÖZER , Z. (2023). Assessment of the Correlation between Spiritual Well-Being and Hope Levels of Society during the COVID-19 Pandemic. GEVHER NESIBE JOURNAL OF MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES, 8(4), 988–995.